Top ten reasons to teach with Socratic seminar

10) Engagement

A well-structured Socratic seminar, and the learning that leads up to it, helps keep students excited and engaged in learning. Classroom discussion has a .82 effect size on John Hattie’s “list of influences on achievement” because dialogue itself is engaging. It gives students opportunities to interact with one another that are sometimes rare in classes.

9) Scaffolding

Most of us scaffold work for students so that they have incremental steps to take in order to achieve a goal (note: you can over-scaffold – think of how annoying really shallow steps are). The steps that culminate in a Socratic seminar support skills in close reading, inquiry and question writing, short written responses, small group discussion, and even text selection.

8) Inquiry

Questioning has an effect size of .48. When students have the opportunity to dive deeper, through posing open-ended questions, they usually become more attached to a subject. The Question Formulation Technique supports the process of asking questions – these questions can become the discussion questions or the seminar or be used and investigated at any point in the learning.

7) Differentiation of tasks

Educators have students with a wide-range of abilities in classes. Differentiating tasks that lead to a Socratic seminar helps ensure that individual needs are met and that student small groups have diverse resources to support preliminary discussion (aka coaching groups). The diversity of experiences makes seminars rich – not agreeing creates more productive discussion.

6) Close reading

Socratic seminar depends on students reading and understanding a text in order to discuss aspects of the text with others. Teaching close reading, a skill that is essential to success in other classes as well, is a vital scaffold. Using annotation to get students to cue into what they think and feel, not to mention what they say, is engaging and helps support other learning.

5) Argument

Reading closely and answering authentic questions through inquiry supports students as they learn to build arguments. Being able to cite text in order to support an opinion (kind of like I did above when I cited Hattie) is a necessary skills to getting ready for college and careers. Supporting an opinion with text evidence makes seminars an academic task that goes beyond a regular old class discussion of a topic.

4) Analysis and Synthesis

Socratic seminars require analysis of at least one text, but bringing together multiple texts, and discussing them together, requires synthesis skills. This means more prep time leading up to the seminar but the combining of texts is extremely dynamic and the takes students have on those ideas will make you proud. Often discussion is a great way to build skills in analyzing and synthesizing because students get to hear from their peers and learn how others approach complex topics, making students engage rather than just comply, with tasks.

3) Change it up!

Your Socratic seminar does not have to look the same every time. You can use the Harkness method (this provides students clear & high expectations, an effect size of 1.44), a fishbowl discussion, open chair, BRAWL, and any number of other techniques. Changing up your approach keeps things fresh for students and helps to differentiate instruction to include more students. Find methods that challenge students and methods that embrace them – they may be the same method!

2) Build relationships

In some classes, but especially large classes, students might go a whole year without knowing one another’s names. Socratic seminar can require that students respond directly to classmates (making nameplates for desks/tables helps) so that, over time, they learn the names of students who sit across the room or are in different cliques. The discussion itself can assist in building connections and empathy for others, not to mention help the teacher know the students in order to better meet their needs over time.

And, the NUMBER ONE reason to use Socratic seminar? It meets ALL the standards

When I look through my “Skinnied” CCSS I can see that seminar, and the tasks that build to seminar or extend it further (like using the questions for research), meets every. single. standard.

These are my Skinny Standards paint sticks – at the end of a PL session we used them to reflect on what seminar could do for student learning

What’s your favorite reason for using Socratic seminar in classroom instruction? Or, what’s stopping you?

Leading the way for students

Twice in the last few weeks I’ve needed to write about my leadership experiences – I always list Every 15 Minutes as the one I am most proud of. As leaders (and all teachers are leaders) we lead our students by example.

In August of 2013 two high school students, Brooke McPheters and Jordyn Durr, were struck and killed by a drunk driver while walking home on a sidewalk from the mall. I didn’t know either of them, though I knew kids who did and teachers who knew them well in classes at South and Service. Too often as teachers we are used to tragedy but there was something about them, these two girls, that made me want to do something more.

They were killed right by where I used to work when I first moved to Anchorage. They were killed on a sidewalk I biked or walked on several times a day for months as I commuted to my job teaching preschool. I felt at some level like I could relate to them – I found out that many kids I knew well did relate to Brooke and Jordyn, either through friendship or experience.

So, I recruited students to co-lead the program with me and we were able to pull off an event that was effective and true to the origins of the national program while showcasing the talents of South’s new video production class. I am so proud of the work Shelby, Amanda, Jordan, and John did as student leaders and how our student body received that work. I’m thrilled with how we coordinated with police and fire (it’s hard!) and the video class. I’m relieved still that my colleagues and administration supported our efforts and guided us when necessary. But mostly I am proud that we stepped up and actually did some small thing to try to prevent an accident like that from occurring again. 

When I read the comments adults make on the work and efforts of protestors, teenagers who are not too different from the kids I’ve always taught, I feel sick. These teenagers have the ability to change the world, as generations before them have had. I hope that all of us educators who have helped lead small changes recognize that how and why we have taught and led students has made the world a better place and has helped show our students how to do the same.

9/11 – addressing difficult things

Last year South Anchorage High School teachers began the tradition of teaching a common text on the same day. This year they will do it again with texts about 9/11, starting with this old blog post of mine that I shared.

September 11th was a current event and now it’s a moment in history; most high school students weren’t even alive in 2001. This is also a very personal event for most of us. We have a personal connection to what happened because it changed the world around us and changed how we view the world.

I taught the events of 9/11 through my personal story (my dad worked in the South tower and, at the time the building collapsed we still had not heard from him) and through poetry.

And then we went to stories that have been written down. I read “The Names” by Billy Collins and I told them it makes me think of everyone I’ve lost, that echoes of people are everywhere. Next came “Prayer for the Dead,” by Stuart Kestenbaum. His line, “…if you discover some piece of your own writing, or an old photograph, you may remember that it was you and even if it was once you, it’s not you now…”  because that’s the reason I have them write an autobiography over the course of the year, so they can look back and see themselves as freshmen in high school. And the last poem, “Five Years Later,” by Tony Gloegger, addresses survivor’s remorse and the pain all of us go through when forced to tell about or relive something traumatic.

I love how new-to-South teacher Ken Hemenway added to the ideas and discussion.

I was attending graduate school in Boston on September 11 and went to New York to visit a girl I was dating in Hoboken, NJ, Friday through Sunday of that week. I have very vivid memories of the smoke, smell, and utter bewilderment of the whole situation from a personal perspective. Needless to say it was surreal and I’ll never forget the numerous places where people had put up papers, pleading for information regarding their lost, loved ones.

I attended Boston College with a young man by the name of Welles Crowther. He played lacrosse and our paths crossed being I was also playing hockey at the time and the student athlete population was a close knit community.
He lost his life on September 11th and I put a link for a short ESPN video presentation entitled “9/11 The Man in the Red Bandanna.” I’m not sure if anyone would like to use this, but I think it may compliment some of the great material shared above.
I’m eager to see how this looks in classes on Monday and will be visiting a teacher to see it in action.
How do you teach 9/11 as an English/language arts teacher? How do you teach other difficult topics and current events like Ferguson, Charlottesville, Syrian refugees, etc. so your students build empathy and cultural literacy?

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This is my seven year-old’s drawing of September 11th, some sort of pirate airplane attack – that is how he created context. I don’t know what prompted him to draw it for me but I have it hanging in my office as a reminder of the importance of teaching kids about difficult topics.

PBS in AK

I was lucky enough to be the 2016 PBS Digital Innovator for the state of Alaska and attend the summit and ISTE in Denver. After that though, it didn’t amount to much beyond using and promoting the amazing resources on PBS Learning Media.
PBS has revamped their Innovator program though and my great friend Traci is lucky enough to reap those benefits for 2017.

Just when I thought my job was done, Traci and I were asked to go to Juneau and be a part of the production for Wild Alaska Live. We arrived yesterday and attended a KTOO launch party for the show (BBC is also here).
This morning we interviewed one of my PBS Kids heroes, Chris Kratt from Wild Kratts! He was kind enough to let me film a short video of him speaking directly to my own children.
The rest of the day we have been by Mendenhall Glacier filming segments about Alaskan animals with Dr. Joy Reidenberg, a comparative anatomist. These will be edited and put on PBS Learning Media for teachers to use in their classrooms.
Tomorrow we will cruise around Juneau and take pictures with “Flat Kratt” a Flat Stanley type project

You can follow all these adventures with the hashtag #AlaskaLive and the interview with Chris Kratt is here! Facebook Live with Chris Kratt

Flipped lesson – Drive, Grit & Success – creating an Outlier?

In the same vein as my flipped lesson for Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, this is a flipped lesson for AP Language students on Malcom Gladwell’s Outliers, Daniel Pink’s Drive, and Angela Duckworth’s work on the importance of developing grit in students. This incorporates the standard WSQ assignment, class discussions (both in class and online), thesis statement building, rhetorical analysis, mind maps (for organizing ideas), reflective writing, formal argument writing, public speaking, and Socratic seminar.

 What is success and how do we find it?

1) WSQ – Rhetorical Modes – read and annotate “How to Read Like a Writer” by Mike Bunn
2) online discussion on Drive video
3) Grit survey
4) WSQ (in-class) – Grit TED talk
5) reflective essay on Grit (using the question from the WSQ)
6) analysis and annotation on chapter of Outliers
7) coaching group on assigned chapter
8) read selection of Drive in class – discussion on the argument and content
9) informal presentation on the chapter of Outliers
10) WSQ & discussion – de Botton TED talk on kinder definition of success
11) read two reviews of Outliers – rhetorical précis for each – how valid and relevant is the criticism?
12) another selection from Drive – read and discuss
13) Mind Map of ideas from all of the sources
14) 4 square discussion – develop a thesis statement
15) question writing for seminar – What is success and how do we find it?
16) seminar
17) argument essay – begin from the class-developed thesis statement

This was created with some collaboration with my friend Amy Habberstad.

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Flash Mob research

In 2010 my social studies teaching partner, Lisa Healow, and I created a research project for our 9th graders in honors and regular world history and English. The research was to answer the question, “What happens when cultures spread?”

Students were assigned a topic and a question relating to that topic with a small group of classmates.  Their task was to find 2 articles about the specific aspect of of their assigned topic (religion, geography, economy/trade, humanities/art, government, society, or science/technology) and create a summary using a specific form.

From there, students worked with group members to develop an answer to the topic question, as well as another question to expand on the topic.  They peer edited the summaries to they were submitted to the class database. Students read and took notes on all of the database entries (submitted through a Google Docs form), making connections and asking recognizing patterns, in preparation for a class seminar.

Lisa and I presented our project, along with student work samples, snippets of the final seminar, and interviews with students about the process, at the 2011 Alaska Society of Technology in Education conference.

Our presentation document, with links to additional material, is available through this link.

Public Service Announcements

Instructions: Use this form to outline your PSA. You may need to use a separate sheet of paper to complete Section 1; you should complete that section first and wait until you have had a chance to complete the online Persuasion Map (http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/persuasion_map/) to finish the rest of the outline.

Target  Audience
Message – Topic
Sound Used
Visual Imagery Used
Print Imagery Used
How do you want viewers to feel when they watch this PSA?
What action do you want viewers to feel they have to take after viewing this PSA?
Scenario: Characters act out the problem. Write script for actions and dialogue (use back of sheet or another piece of paper as necessary).
Goal: These words flash across the screen.
Reasons: Voiceover explains the problem
while image shows problem.
Facts: Voiceover discusses the facts while image shows facts.
For More Information:
Show organization phone or website (make one up or use existing).

 

 

Africa – project based learning

This Africa Project is designed as a project/problem based learning unit.

Project Details

Title: Africa
Collaborators: Larissa Elson & Lisa Healow
Grade level: high school (9-12)
Recommended Time Frame: 2 – 3 weeks (10-20 contact hours)
Content areas:

  • ethics
  • geography
  • history
  • humanities
  • language arts
  • literature
  • reading

Keywords:

african africa uganda army kony

Web Resources

http://s3.amazonaws.com/www.invisiblechildren.com/history.html
Invisible Children – background on conflict
http://thedailywh.at/2012/03/07/on-kony-2012-2/
Issues with the organization, Invisible Children
http://s3.amazonaws.com/www.invisiblechildren.com/critiques.html
Invisible Children responds to criticism
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/blogpost/post/invisible-childrens-stop-kony-campaign/2012/03/07/gIQA7B31wR_blog.html
Invisible Children responds to criticism about ‘Stop Kony’ campaign

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2006/04/05/can-justice-be-taylor-made/
Charles Taylor in Liberia

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/centralafricanrepublic/index.html?scp=2&sq=kony&st=cse
World news about the Central African Republic, including breaking news and archival articles published in The New York Times.

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/uganda/index.html?scp=3&sq=kony&st=cse
A list of resources from around the Web about Uganda as selected by researchers and editors of The New York Times.

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/congothedemocraticrepublicof/index.html?scp=4&sq=kony&st=cse
Congo article collection – New York Times Topics

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/w/war_crimes_genocide_and_crimes_against_humanity/index.html?scp=1-spot&sq=war%20crimes&st=cse
War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4320858.stm
BBC Profile: Joseph Kony

http://blog.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/03/07/guest_post_joseph_kony_is_not_in_uganda_and_other_complicated_things
Guest post: Joseph Kony is not in Uganda (and other complicated things)

http://youtu.be/Y4MnpzG5Sqc
KONY 2012

A Long Way Gone
African Literature section of textbook

Begin with the End in Mind:

Students will:
Communicate Effectively and Persuasively, Manage Projects Effectively, Think Critically

Craft the Driving Question:

How can the examination of the past inform us about our present lives and what our responsibility is toward one another?
Are you your brothers’/sisters’ keeper?
How can we effect change in the world without giving money?

Research Question:

here is a site that may be of help as you write your research question
(After viewing and reading some background information, determine what you want to learn more about. Like in past projects, let your product answer your research question and the two driving questions above.)

STUDENTS create question here

Plan the Assessment:

Infographic, Prezi, or other choice with corresponding narrative paper and annotated bibliography
that shows students can do the following:

  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

 

  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
  • Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Map the Project:

Major product: infographic or Prezi (or something similar as suggested by students) with corresponding narrative paper and annotated bibliography

  • watch – Invisible Children viral video
  • read – articles about Kony, crimes of humanity, and others listed above
  • read – A Long Way Gone
  • read – African Lit section of the textbook
  • research – submit analysis or each article and image to create an annotated bibliography
  • create – infographic or Prezi
  • present – the answers to your questions and the choices you made when creating your product

 

Manage the Process:

Write and submit your research question
Learning contract filled out
Daily work form completed
How to: annotated bibliography (due with project)